In the RoboCup Junior soccer league, a team of two autonomous mobile robots competes against another team in matches. They must look for a ball, trying to score into a color-coded goal in a special field built in a way that resembles the actual field for human soccer. Robots are required to have full autonomy from humans and technical design, and ingenious programming by their developers.

In the Lightweight League, the ball emits infrared light so that it can be detected with the robot's infrared sensors. Some teams also use a compass to determine the orientation of the robot on the field.

In the Open League an orange ball has been used since 2017. The teams have to locate the ball with cameras or color sensors. Advanced teams construct robots with sophisticated ball guiding and shooting equipment. In both leagues two robots play against each other.

In addition to the established leagues, competitions will be offered for the first time in the entry-level league Soccer 1-1 Standard Kit.